When circulating blood travels through blood vessels, it exerts a certain amount of pressure on the walls of the vessels; this pressure is simply called blood pressure. This pressure is due to the pumping of the heart and is measured in two readings: Systolic pressure when the heart beats and diastolic pressure when the heart relaxes between two beats. A single beat corresponds to one complete circulation.
For a normal human individual, the normal blood pressure should be 120/80 on average. 120 is the systolic pressure and 80 is the diastolic pressure. Also in a normal individual the pulse rate should be from 60-100 in one minute. If the pulse rate is less than 60 then the person has hypotension and if it is above 100 the person has hypertension. At any given time, if an individual has a BP of 110/60 or even 130/90, then it is usually considered as the normal blood pressure because 120/80 is an average reading. However, any reading greater or less than these values corresponds to low and high blood pressure.
Your BP level may fall due to many reasons, but most commonly hypotension may be due to low salt levels and electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, or excessive bleeding. In the case of low blood pressure, the blood vessels expand to allow more blood to travel through them. This decreases your BP level. If the BP level is very low it means that blood is not being sufficiently flowed to the heart and out and the heart is pumping very slowly. The symptoms of hypotension are: weakness, nausea, and shivering.
However, the most common symptom is weakness. Whenever you are feeling extremely weak, then you are probably hypotensive..
If you have a low BP, you should immediately drink water with salt in it or boil and egg and eat it with a lot of salt. If you have suffered an injury where you have an excessive bleeding then you should immediately consult a doctor.
Many believe that high blood pressure, or hypertension, is far more dangerous than low. It is probably due to the fact that the coronary heart disease and other major heart diseases are caused by hypertension. In the case of hypertension, the vessels contract making it hard for the blood to pass increasing the blood pressure, which in turn puts a pressure on the heart. Hypertension can be caused due to various reasons: Obesity is the major cause of hypertension. The stored fat under the skin exerts pressure on the vessels forcing them to contract. High cholesterol level and excessive salt level in the blood are also major signs. As a result of a major disease such as diabetes.When your BP is high, the following may be the symptoms you observe: Swelling of hands and feet, increased heart beat, blood thumping at your temple and behind your ears, and sweating and redness of face and neck.
Where coping with low BP levels is not that hard, hypertension is a more complex state. If you have a frequent problem of hypertension then you should consult a doctor who will prescribe you a proper medicine to lower your blood pressure. If you are fat or obese then you should start exercising and lose the excess weight. If you have a high cholesterol problem then you should avoid fatty food, meat and exercise a lot. In any given condition if you have a high BP then the following are the immediate actions you should take: Take the medicine prescribed to you and drink plenty of water.
To maintain normal blood pressure in any case we all should drink a lot of water, eat healthy food, exercise daily and avoid excessive fatty foods.